Puberty and Developmental Difficulties
Environmental Health Perspectives. 114(1):10-17 (2006) http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/fetchArticle.action?articleURI=info:doi/10.1289/ehp.7940
Every child conceived today in the northern hemisphere has been exposed to pesticides from conception. Although not visible at birth, developmental defects such as brain and nervous system disturbances affect function. It is suggested that a new approach to determining the safety of pesticide classes is needed along with a new regulatory approach to protecting human health from pesticide exposure.
NEUROBEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO THE ORGANOPHOSPHATE DIAZINON IN MICE. Spyker, J.M. and Avery D. L.,
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental, 3:989-1002 (1977) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/599594
This study subjected pregnant mice to the organophosphate pesticide diazanon in three dose amounts. The offspring of the highest dose group developed slower and remained smaller. All of the mice that received any dose amount had impaired endurance and coordination. Dissection of their brains revealed some pathology in the offspring of the high dose group.
In Harms Way: Toxic Threats to Child Development, (2000) http://www.psr.org/chapters/boston/resources/in-harms-way-report-download.html
This is a report about the neurological health of children, the occurrence of learning disabilities and behavioral changes, and their suspected links with exposure to chemicals at critical times in a child’s development. The report suggests that further research is a priority because chemical exposure can and should be prevented.
HOUSEHOLD EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES AND BLADDER EXSTROPHY IN A NEWBORN BABY BOY: A CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. Martin M. et al.,
Journal of Medical Case Reports. 30(3):6626 (2009) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19830118
This case study examines a mother’s use of bug spray for a cockroach infestation. The mother was exposed to 1000cc of domestic pesticide spray every two days and more in summer months, and describes repeated incidents of what consists of pesticide poisoning. “The pyrethroids and pyriproxyfen were detected in a urine sample obtained from the child four months after he was born.” “Bladder exstrophy is a rare urogenital abnormality” and no other risk factors besides pyrethroids and pyriproxyfen are found.
EVIDENCE SUGGESTS CHILD BRAIN DEVELOPMENT HARM DURING PREGNANCY FROM COMMON PESTICIDE CHLORPYRIFOS. Whitney, K, et al.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 134:53-62 (1995) http://www.chem-tox.com/pesticides/
Conducted on rats, this study by Duke University Medical Center finds that sub-toxic exposure to chlorpyrifos during a stage of development similar to the last trimester of human fetal development may cause damaging changes to the brain. These effects may include learning disabilities, ADHD and autism.
DRINKING-WATER HERBICIDE EXPOSURE IN INDIANA AND PREVALENCE OF SMALL-FOR-GESTATIONAL-AGE AND PRETERM DELIVERY. Ochoa-Acuña H, et al.,
Environmental Health Perspectives. 117(10):1619-24 (2009) http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/fetchArticle.action?articleURI=info:doi/10.1289/ehp.0900784
The results of the study find a significant increase in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) due to atrazine in drinking water during pregnancy. Women who ingested Atrazine in drinking water during the third trimester resulted in a 17-19% increase in the prevalence of SGA compared with the control group. Overall, atrazine concentrations over the entire pregnancy were associated with higher SGA prevalence than in the control group.
DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES ZINEB AND/OR ENDOSULFAN RENDERS THE NIGROSTRIATAL DOPAMINE SYSTEM MORE SUSCEPTIBLE TO THESE ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS LATER IN LIFE. Jia, Z., et al.,
Neurotoxicology, 28(4):727-735 (2007) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17512982
The conclusions of this study suggest the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides, such as endosulfan and/or zineb, at critical periods of childhood development may result in neuronal dysfunction. As well, early exposure to these pesticides may increase consequences of an exposure later in life.
AGRICULTURAL-RELATED CHEMICAL EXPOSURES, SEASON OF CONCEPTION, AND RISK OF GASTROSCHISIS IN WASHINGTON STATE. Waller SA et al.,
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 202(3):241-246 (2010) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20207240
This study in Washington State finds a connection between gastroschisis and the proximity of residence to a site with high atrazine concentrations. All singleton infants with gastroschisis were included in the study, and distance between residence and agrichemicals were calculated. Results found that prenatal exposure to atrazine from surface water is connected to fetal gastroschisis.
THE EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE ON FEMALE WISTAR RATS: AN EVALUATION OF THE PROTOCOL FOR ASSESSING PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID FUNCTION Laws SC et al.,
Toxicological Sciences, 58:366-376 (2000) http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/58/2/366
The data ascertained from this study demonstrates that Atrazine delays puberty and alters the estrous cycle in the female Wistar rat. Vaginal opening was found to be significantly delayed and irregular estrous cycles are characterized by extended periods of diestrous. As well, adrenal, kidney, pituitary, ovary and uterine weights are reduced.