Community Health Studies, 10:1-11 (1986) http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123280862/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
For this study, data from 155 mothers of limb deficient children born between 1970 and 1981 was compared with 274 normal controls. Levels of exposure to pesticides were categorized by proximity of the mother to the source and the circumstances surrounding use. Statistical analysis suggests significant association linking congenital limb defects with pesticides. Furthermore, greater risk to infants is found with increased exposure and increased proximity to the pesticide.
POTENTIAL PARENTAL EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES AND LIMB REDUCTION DEFECTS. Lin S, Marshall EG, and Davidson GK,
Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health, 20:166-179 (1994) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7973488
Using New York State Congenital Malformation Register data, limb reduction defects in offspring was linked to parental pesticide exposure. Persons who had additional defects showed elevated risks due to parental occupational pesticide exposure.
Annals of Epidemiology. 20(1):16-22 (2010) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20006272
Of 184 Mexican-American women and 225 women in a control group, women who used pesticides in their home or yard were twice as likely to have NTD-affected pregnancies. Not only was home use of pesticides linked to an increased risk of NTD but also proximity to locally cultivated fields.
BIRTH DEFECTS, SEASON OF CONCEPTION, AND SEX OF CHILDREN BORN TO PESTICIDE APPLICATORS LIVING IN THE RED RIVER VALLEY OF MINNESOTA, USA. Garry, V.F. et al.
Environmental Health Perspectives, 110(3):441-449 (2002) http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/fetchArticle.action?articleURI=info:doi/10.1289/ehp.02110s3441
This study based in Minnesota found the frequency of birth defects due to pesticides including fungicides is significantly higher in babies conceived during the spring when pesticide use is highest. This study also found that male children conceived during spring were a proportionally higher risk group.
Epidemiology, 8(5):537-544 (1997) http://journals.lww.com/epidem/Abstract/1997/09000/Birth_Defects_among_Offspring_of_Norwegian.11.aspx
This study finds a correlation between of parental pesticide exposure and offspring defects. Defects of the central nervous system, orofacial clefts, some male genital defects, and limb reduction defects were associated to pesticide exposure of parents. Limb reduction defects were particularly related from grain farming, and an increased risk for spina bifida and hydrocephaly were related to exposure in orchards and greenhouses.
AGRICHEMICALS IN SURFACE WATER AND BIRTH DEFECTS IN THE UNITED STATES. Winchester PD. Huskins J., Ying J.
Acta Paediatrica 98(4):664-9 (2009) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19183116
Concentrations of pesticides calculated from US Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment data and birth defect rates from US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were compared to find “elevated concentrations of agrichemicals in surface water in April-July coincided with higher risk of birth defects in live births with LMPs April-July.”